Sometimes we may meet the case that subtotal values for different groups and only record a subtotal value for one group in a column, for other cells in this group, keep them blank. Today we will introduce you how can we subtotal values for groups and record subtotal values only in specific cells.

We can get subtotal through **Subtotal** function or **SUM** function in simple cases, but per different requirement, we need to apply different functions or combinations. Today we will provide a formula contains three functions **IF/COUNTIF/SUMIFS** to solve this issue. Through demonstrate a simple instance, we will introduce you the syntax, arguments of these functions, and let you know how the formula works step by step. After reading the article, you can think about if there are some other ways to solve this problem.

**EXAMPLE**

Refer to above table, we can see that T-shirts are grouped by colors, and amounts for weeks are separately listed. Our expectation is “get subtotal for each product and record them in proper cell”, see example below:

We want to 1) save the subtotal values in the cells which background is filled in light orange. 2) For the other cells in this column should keep blank. 3) By the way, we also want to enter only one formula into D2, then though dragging the handle down to fill other cells, subtotal in D5 and D8 should also be calculated properly.

Can we create a formula that can cover above three conditions? Actually, yes.

In this instance, with the help of **IF**, **COUNTIF** and **SUMIF** functions, we can calculate subtotal for each product by only one formula properly.

**FORMULA **

**Step 1: **Select B2:B10, then in **Name Box** define a new name for this range, for example ‘**Product**’.

**Step 2: **Select C2:C10, in **Name Box** define a new name for this range, for example ‘**Amount**’.

**Step 3: **In D2, enter the formula **=IF(COUNTIF($B$2:B2,B2)=1,SUMIF($B$2:$B$10,B2,$C$2:$C$10),””).**

**NOTE:** In step#1 and step#2 we defined “Product” and “Amount” two ranges, when entering the formula, after typing “Amou…”, defined range “Amount” is auto loaded. User defined range can be seen as absolute reference, so when copy formula to other cells, the reference will not be adjusted automatically. If we use range reference B2:B10 in the formula, we need to add “$” to lock the range.

**Step 4: **Press **Enter** after typing the formula. A number is returned.

We can see in column D2, subtotal $450 is returned, it is equal to 100+150+200, the total of C2:C4. The formula is correct.

**Step 5: **Drag the handle down to fill other cells.

Verify that subtotal values are calculated correctly for each product. Besides, the subtotal is only recorded in the first row of each group, others keep blank.

**FUNCTION INTRODUCTION**

In this formula we create a formula with **IF **function which applies **COUNTIF** and **SUMIF** functions as its arguments.

**IF** function will run a logical test first, and based on the result ‘**True**’ of ‘**False**’, it chooses to which branch to execute.

For **IF** function, the syntax is:

**=IF (logical_test, [value_if_true], [value_if_false])**

**———————————————————————————————-**

**COUNTIF** function can used for counting cell number based on different criteria.

For **COUNTIF** function, the syntax is:

**=COUNTIF (range, criteria)**

**———————————————————————————————-**

**SUMIFS** function can be seen as **SUM+IFS**, it can handle multiple ‘criteria range’ and ‘criteria’ combinations.

For **SUMIF** function, the syntax is:

**=SUMIF (range, criteria, [sum_range])**

For above three functions, they all allow logical operators like “>”,”>”,”<>” and wildcards like “*”,”?”.

**FUNCTION ARGUMENTS EXPLANATION**

**For If function:**

Logical_test: COUNTIF($B$2:B2,B2)=1

value_if_true: SUMIF($B$2:$B$10,B2,$C$2:$C$10)

value_if_false: “” – nothing returns

**——————————————————————————————————————–**

**For COUNTIF function:**

Range: $B$2:B2

Criteria: B2

For range $B$2:B2 is an expanding range. Start cell is B2, and the end cell is not fixed.

Select range and criteria separately in the formula bar, and press F9 to convert cell reference to real values. See screenshot below:

**——————————————————————————————————————–**

**For SUMIF function:**

Range: $B$2:$B$10

Criteria: B2

Sum Range: $C$2:$C$10

Select above arguments, press F9 to convert cell reference to real values. See screenshot below:

**HOW THIS FORMULA WORKS**

After explaining each argument in the formula, now we will show you how the formula works with these arguments.

Refer to above steps, the formula is converted to below format in the formula bar.

=IF(COUNTIF("T-shirt (Red)","T-shirt (Red)")=1,SUMIF({"T-shirt (Red)";"T-shirt (Red)";"T-shirt (Red)";"T-shirt (Blue)";"T-shirt (Blue)";"T-shirt (Blue)";"T-shirt (Black)";"T-shirt (Black)";"T-shirt (Black)"},"T-shirt (Red)",{100;150;200;160;170;180;150;200;220}),"")

**——————————————————————————————————————–**

In **IF** function, the core part is logical test part, its returned value determines which branch we will go to.

**Logical_test: **

COUNTIF("T-shirt (Red)","T-shirt (Red)")=1

For this part, range “T-shirt (Red)” just contains one criteria “T-shirt (Red)”, so **COUNTIF(“T-shirt (Red)”,”T-shirt (Red)”)=1**, the formula **COUNTIF(“T-shirt (Red)”,”T-shirt (Red)”)=1** is ‘True’. So we go to ‘**value_if_ture**’ and ignore ‘**value_if_false**’.

**value_if_true: **

SUMIF({"T-shirt (Red)";"T-shirt (Red)";"T-shirt (Red)";"T-shirt (Blue)";"T-shirt (Blue)";"T-shirt (Blue)";"T-shirt (Black)";"T-shirt (Black)";"T-shirt (Black)"},"T-shirt (Red)",{100;150;200;160;170;180;150;200;220})

For this part, we have one pair of criteria range and criteria:

**criteria range:**

{"T-shirt (Red)";"T-shirt (Red)";"T-shirt (Red)";"T-shirt (Blue)";"T-shirt (Blue)";"T-shirt (Blue)";"T-shirt (Black)";"T-shirt (Black)}

**criteria:**

"T-shirt (Red)"

Compare each value in the array with criteria, we get a new array that only contains ‘True’ and ‘False’.

{True;True;True;False;False;False;False;False}

Convert True to 1, False to 0.

**{1;1;1;0;0;0;0;0}**

Now, we have below two arrays in the formula:

**Sum Range:**

{100;150;200;160;170;180;150;200;220}

{**1;1;1;0;0;0;0;0**}

We list the two arrays in two rows, multiply the two numbers in the same column, and save their products in another row, sum all products together, we can get 450 at last.

**NOTE**

We noticed that after typing the formula and dragging the handle down to fill the ‘Subtotal’ column, not all the cells have a sum value, some cells keep blank as we expect. Why the formula returns an empty value after coping it to other cells?

In cell D3, the formula is automatically adjusted to **=IF(COUNTIF($B$2:B3,B3)=1,SUMIF(Product,B3,Amount),””)** after coping and pasting.

In logical test part, **CONTIF($B$2:B3,B3)** is equal to **COUNTIF({“T-shirt (Red)”;”T-shirt (Red)”},”T-shirt (Red)”)**.

Obviously, this formula returns 2, which is not equal to 1, so **IF** function returns ‘**valus_if_false**’ value, which is “” an empty value in this case. Above all, in D3, the subtotal is blank.

**SUMMARY**

**1**. To subtotal values we can apply different functions together. In this case we apply **IF** function core formula, and a formula contains **COUNTIF** function as logical test, **SUMIFS** function as ‘**True**’ part returned value.

**2**. For above three functions, they all allow logical operators like “>”,”>”,”<>” and wildcards like “*”,”?”.

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